이 보고서는 다음과 같은 궁금증에 대해 분석하였습니다.
- 다음 20년 동안 육상, 해상, 항공의 태양열 자동차는 어디로 가는가?
- 2021-2041년의 일반 태양광 자동차 대비 프리미엄 자동차 수, 단위 가치 및 시장 가치 전망
- 2021-2041년의 기술 및 애플리케이션의 세부 로드맵
- 승자와 패자가 될 기업, 기술 및 접근 방식
- 현재와 미래의 가장 적합한 애플리케이션 및 공급업체에 대한 이유와 상대적 중요성은 무엇인가?
- 현재와 미래의 모든 태양열 기술을 자동차, 공급업체의 장단점
3. 태양열 자동차, 밴, 릭샤, 트라이크스
4. 태양열 버스, 트럭
5. 열차용 태양열 지원
6. 태양열 AGRIBOTS
7. 태양열 보트
8. 태양열 항공기
Solar Vehicles 2021-2041 2nd Edition
Energy independence, battery reduction, range increase, photovoltaics, scSi, CIGS, OPV, III-V, structural electronics, solar windows.
Vehicle designers not yet considering solar bodywork are crazy. The tipping point is with us mainly because single-crystal silicon photovoltaics providing 50% more electricity per unit area is now viable even on the sides of vehicles. In all, three times as much electricity. Adoption is now so rapid that IDTechEx has rewritten its report within a year. "Solar Vehicles 2021-2041 2nd Edition" explains in 260 pages. Mostly, it covers the biggest potential - land vehicles - but it gives latest learnings on water and in the air.
See how purchasers of solar on-road vehicles now have a wide choice from solar adding a few hundred kilometers yearly to total energy independence for tens of kilometers. That includes the typical city dweller doing 12,000 km yearly. Never plug in? Escape the tyranny of unreliable, over-busy charging stations with their stupidly different payment means and interfaces? Solar vehicles let you plug in if you need more range but they typically get by on half the battery, reducing problems from that troublesome component too.
Suddenly the choice is huge, the sources global. The energy-independent cars range from spartan to designer cars. China offers solar vehicles ranging from golf cars to family cars and people movers but just one brand Economia in Pakistan now offers all those plus an enclosed solar trike. All are made in Pakistan. On the other side of the world, new solar cars include Aptera solar 3 wheeler claiming world record 1600km 1000 miles range on full battery. Globally, solar two seaters are now multiply-sourced.
Importantly, solar bodywork is now viable for conventional, hybrid and battery vehicles. Read Hyundai's roll-out. Tesla Cybertruk has solar option demonstrated. Yes, the big names are piling in now, Toyota even working on a further leap in solar range to over 20 km yearly. Many solar boats are there already. Indeed, energy-independent solar electric boats are commonplace and some multi-mode harvesting here has lessons for land vehicles.
Trucks now come centre stage with a major program on solar-assisted hybrid trucks headed by Scania, part of VW Group. Sono Motors, with the largest solar car orderbook, has just demonstrated an all-over-solar truck. Solar truck savings will double the typical profit of a trucker. Learn why Sono Motors has licensed its all-over solar technology to a leading robot shuttle maker and Dethleffs sells the format on its recreational vehicle.
"Solar Vehicles 2021-2041 2nd Edition" is continuously researched by multi-lingual IDTechEx analysts worldwide. It even explains what happens when the next solar vehicle technologies become affordable on land and it scopes intermediate technologies such as CIGS and OPV being introduced on vehicles.
The report starts with an Executive Summary and Conclusions, sufficient for those with limited time and including 10 and 20 year forecasts and a 20 year roadmap. The Introduction then explains the history, applications and technologies including a new concept by IDTechEx. Learn next options such as expanding solar on vehicles, even trucks and boats as zero-emission minigrids in these critical appraisals with predictions.
Chapter 3 covers solar cars, vans, rickshaws, trikes including the major Australian program developing a multi-purpose, reconfigurable solar vehicle. Cars with less battery, more range are here, including Fisker and Lightyear. There are many solar golf cars, vans and other options from Italy to India. Chapter 4 concerns solar buses and trucks from new Fraunhofer advances in Germany to solar versions in Brazil and Uganda. From Norway to Japan, this chapter also includes people movers and recreational vehicles and a surprising variety of solar technologies in action, with reasons why.
Chapters 5 and 6 concern solar assisted trains and solar agricultural robots, some energy independent.
However, solar boats in Chapter 7 are a bigger business than trains and agribots and solar aircraft covered in Chapter 8 are rapidly becoming important. More-powerful, more-expensive solar film is on airship and fixed-wing drones in the Stratosphere and LEO satellites, all essential for surveillance and the next generation 5G and 6G communications. However, the Chinese have just demonstrated solar independence in a lower altitude drone day-and-night and trials on regular electric light aircraft will result in large adoption later even on battery-electric regional aircraft now being prepared. Learn what technology and when. The report then ends with a long chapter on the big picture of photovoltaics, its technologies and evolving improvements and uses.
Anyone entering the value chain of solar vehicles land, water and air from regulators and investors to users and system operators must look at the big picture in the form of land, water and air and all technologies to benchmark best practice, winners and losers. Only the new IDTechEx report, "Solar Vehicles 2021-2041 Second Edition" gives all this with the latest information appraised by highly technical analysts creating infograms, graphs and forecasts that are simply understood not nostalgic or academically obscure. From the start, clarity is assisted with a comprehensive glossary of the jargon. This report serves those seeking commercial success and benefits to society.
This report answers questions such as:
- Who, where, why, what for solar vehicles land, water and air over the next 20 years?
- Forecasts for numbers, unit value and market value of premium vs regular solar cars 2021-2041?
- Detailed roadmap of technology and applications 2021-2041?
- What do the PhD-level analysts derive as 13 primary conclusions and 30 specific conclusions?
- Companies, technologies and approaches that are and will be winners and losers?
- Most suitable applications now and in future and why and relative importance for suppliers?
- All solar technologies compared now and in future with pros and cons for vehicles, suppliers?
- The bad news not just the good news?
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
- 1.1. Purpose of this report
- 1.2. Basics
- 1.2.1. Definitions and history
- 1.2.2. Benchmarking
- 1.3. Primary conclusions
- 1.3.1. Importance of solar vehicles
- 1.3.2. Primary conclusions
- 1.3.3. Tipping points for sales of solar trucks, buses and trains
- 1.3.4. Corporate and geographical positioning
- 1.3.5. Chemistry generally including protection
- 1.3.6. Format
- 1.3.7. Leading solar cars compared: Sono, Lightyear, Toyota
- 1.3.8. Solar two-seater city cars Squad, Zoop
- 1.3.9. Aptera solar car
- 1.3.10. Patent analysis: solar car
- 1.3.11. Solar buses and trucks
- 1.3.12. Trains
- 1.3.13. Solar aircraft
- 1.3.14. New directions
- 1.3.15. Patent analysis: solar vehicle
- 1.4. Market forecasts
- 1.4.1. Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041
- 1.4.2. Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041 - number of vehicles (thousand)
- 1.4.3. Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041 - unit value (US$ thousand) - ex factory
- 1.4.4. Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041 - market value (US$ billion)
- 1.4.5. Major solar opportunity on 20 million 48V hybrid cars yearly
- 1.4.6. Global photovoltaic technology share $bn % 2041
- 1.4.7. Technology timeline for solar cars
- 2.1. Extreme solar vehicles and next advances
- 2.1.1. Antarctic to stratosphere
- 2.1.2. Solar spacecraft beam power to Earth?
- 2.1.3. Pick up trucks: Tesla solar Cybertruck and alternatives
- 2.1.4. Renovagen: unrolling like a carpet
- 2.1.5. Double roll solar on a truck?
- 2.1.6. Solar reduces PHEV truck fuel consumption 5-20%
- 2.2. How an Electric Vehicle EV works
- 2.3. Photovoltaic technology choice vehicles
- 2.3.1. Definition, background
- 2.3.2. Choice of chemistry
- 2.3.3. III-V materials
- 2.3.4. Move to multijunction: OxfordPV, Swift Solar
- 2.3.5. Affordable thin film more efficient than rigid silicon 2031-2041?
- 2.3.6. Choice of format
- 2.4. Solar racers show the future - triple junction III-V, solar on sides
- 2.5. Solar aircraft and boats show the future
- 2.6. The big picture: Energy Independent Electric Vehicles
- 2.6.1. Definition and derivation
- 2.6.2. Types of Energy Independent Electric Vehicle EIEV
- 2.6.3. EIEV operational choices
- 2.6.4. Key EIEV technologies
- 2.6.5. Examples of EIEV technologies on land past, present and concept
- 2.6.6. Technologies of marine EIEVs past, present and concept
- 2.6.7. Technologies of airborne EIEVs past, present and concept
- 2.6.8. Characteristics of the High Power Energy Harvesting essential to EIEVs
3. SOLAR CARS, VANS, RICKSHAWS, TRIKES
- 3.1. Multipurpose
- 3.2. Cars
- 3.2.1. Economia Pakistan
- 3.2.2. Fisker USA
- 3.2.3. Fraunhofer ISE Germany
- 3.2.4. Hyundai-Kia Korea
- 3.2.5. Karma USA
- 3.2.6. Lightyear Netherlands
- 3.2.7. Manipal IT India
- 3.2.8. Sono Motors Germany
- 3.2.9. Toyota Japan
- 3.3. Car-like vehicles
- 3.3.1. Amthi China
- 3.3.2. Cambridge University UK
- 3.3.3. Dalian Sengu China
- 3.3.4. Deeraj China
- 3.3.5. Evovelo Spain
- 3.3.6. Ibaze Rwanda
- 3.3.7. I-FEVS Italy
- 3.3.8. Midsummer Sweden
- 3.3.9. Neeraj and other solar rickshaws India
- 3.3.10. Sunnyclist Greece
- 3.3.11. Sky Ace Tiga Japan
- 3.3.12. Stella Lux, Stella Era, Stella Vie Netherlands
- 3.3.13. Vikram Solar and IESA India
- 3.4. Cargo Trikes
- 3.4.1. Cargo Trike UK
- 3.4.2. Royal Mail UK
- 3.5. Golf carts
4. SOLAR BUSES, TRUCKS
- 4.1. Buses
- 4.1.1. Akita prefecture Japan
- 4.1.2. BYD and others China
- 4.1.3. Green Energy Norway
- 4.1.4. K-Bus Austria
- 4.1.5. Kiira Motors Uganda
- 4.1.6. Nanowinn Technologies China
- 4.1.7. North Korea Research Department
- 4.1.8. Solarve Japan
- 4.1.9. TAM Slovenia
- 4.2. Trucks
- 4.2.1. E-FORCE Switzerland
- 4.2.2. Group Robert Canada
- 4.2.3. Fraunhofer ISE Germany
- 4.2.4. Greentrucks on the go USA
- 4.2.5. Mesilla Valley Transportation and K&J Trucking USA
- 4.2.6. Sunew Brazil
- 4.2.7. University of Southampton UK
- 4.2.8. Volvo Sweden
- 4.3. Recreational vehicles
5. SOLAR ASSISTANCE FOR TRAINS
- 5.1. Overview
- 5.2. Indian Railways
- 5.3. Byron Bay USA
- 5.4. Solar Bullet USA
6. SOLAR AGRIBOTS
- 6.1. University of Sydney Australia
- 6.2. Amity University Haryana, India
- 6.3. Vinerobot Europe
7. SOLAR BOATS
- 7.1. Structural photovoltaics: Solar boats pSi or scSi
- 7.2. Energy Observer France
- 7.3. Greenline Yachts Slovenia
- 7.4. Lazzarini Design Italy
- 7.5. Soel Yachts Netherlands
- 7.6. Sunreef Poland
8. SOLAR AIRCRAFT
- 8.1. Upper atmosphere solar drones
- 8.1.1. Fixed wing
- 8.1.2. Airbus Zephyr
- 8.1.3. AVIC China Caihong (Rainbow) CH-T4 and Morning Star
- 8.1.4. CASIC Solar
- 8.1.5. BAE Systems, UK and Australia Defence PHASA-35
- 8.1.6. Boeing Aurora Odysseus
- 8.1.7. NASA swift solar drone
- 8.1.8. Inflated HAPS
- 8.1.9. Thales-Alenia's Stratobus airship
- 8.1.10. Why Loon died in 2021
- 8.2. Low level solar drones
- 8.3. Solar manned aircraft
- 8.3.1. Overview
- 8.3.2. Solar Impulse
- 8.3.3. Bye Aerospace manned aircraft
- 8.3.4. NASA solar helicopter on Mars
9. PHOTOVOLTAICS: THE BIG PICTURE
- 9.1. Purpose of this chapter
- 9.2. Anatomy of the photovoltaic business 2021-2041
- 9.3. Price-volume sensitivity by application
- 9.4. Two worlds
- 9.5. Top ten PV manufacturers by chemistry
- 9.6. Si and CdTe cost progression 1976-2040
- 9.7. Silicon PV costs race downward 2021-2050
- 9.8. Primary conclusions: thin film PV market
- 9.9. Cadmium telluride
- 9.10. CIGS PV
- 9.10.1. Global output of thin film CIGS photovoltaics $M and MWp 2000-2018
- 9.10.2. CIGS cost reduction
- 9.10.3. Global market for thin film CIGS photovoltaics GWp and $ billion 2020-2040
- 9.11. Global market for III-V compound semiconductor PV $ billion and GWp 2020-2040
- 9.12. Global market for perovskite PV $M
- 9.13. Organic photovoltaics OPV
- 9.13.1. Global market for OPV $M 2020-2040
- 9.13.2. OPV relative to other photovoltaic technologies
- 9.13.3. Technical background
- 9.13.4. Types of OPV materials
- 9.13.5. OPV for semi-transparent and hybrid cells
- 9.13.6. SWOT analysis: OPV materials
- 9.14. Geographic PV materials demand
10. APPENDIX: PHOTOVOLTAICS EXPERIENCE CURVES AND WHY CIGS PRICES WILL START TO IMPROVE AT A NORMAL, STEEPER RATE